Linux Operating System Operates Linux Server

An operating system refers to a set of programs and platforms that help run a computer. It is involved in managing the computer’s hardware and in executing different application software. Operating systems are a vital component in any computer operation.

Linux is a type of system that is similar to Unix. Since it is an system, it is meant to be installed in computers but can also be used for video game consoles, mainframes, and mobile phones. Linux is an example of open source software. It is available for free and source codes can be altered and redistributed.

The design of Linux is based on Unix systems. Majority of the design of Linux operating systems are based on the design principles of Unix OS released during the 1980s. Linux operating systems make use of a monolithic kernel also known as a Linux kernel. It is responsible for accessing the file system, networking, processing control, as well as peripheral access. Drivers for devices can be integrated into the kernel or added as a module.

When it comes to web servers, it is important to use a compatible operating system for your server. For Linux-based web servers, a Linux operating system is needed.

servers are primarily responsible for delivering a web page. Each web server has a domain name and an IP address. A computer can be transformed to a web server through web server software and an internet connection.

Web server software are usually Linux and Unix-based and Windows-based. Only Linux operating systems can be used for Linux hosting servers and the same applies for Windows and Unix operating systems.

Linux web servers are widely used today as there Linux is available for free. Aside from the operating system being available at no cost, Linux applications are also offered for free. Linux also provides stability and reliability. Linux servers also have a higher up-time compared to hosting servers based on Windows operating system.

If you are looking for a web server that is reliable but cost-effective as well, then you might definitely want to consider using Linux

Operating System Options and Installation Methods

An OS is installed on the computers’ hard disk, inside an area called hard disk partition. There are several ways for installing a new operating system. The installation method is based on the system hardware and end-user requirements. Generally, you have four basic options for the installation of a new operating system:

Clean Installation

We can perform a clean installation on a new computer or in those cases where there is no upgrade path between the current operating system and the new one. This type of installation deletes all data on the hard disks partition where the current operating system is installed. A new PC requires, of course a clean installation. You can also do a clean install when the current operating system installation has corrupted files or does not work properly.

Upgrade Installation

Sometimes, it is also possible to perform an upgrade. When you perform an upgrade, OS configuration settings, installed programs and data are preserved. With this installation you have nothing to worry about, because you will not lose any personal data. You will just replace the old operating system files with the new, upgraded files. However, keep in mind that after the upgrade the applications and drivers that are incompatible with the new OS will not work as expected.

Multi-boot Installation

Another option is to install multiple operating systems on a single computer. You can install each OS inside a different disk partition and this way every OS will have its own files and configuration settings. On multi-boot installations, the users see a menu when they open their computers and they have to select the desired OS. Of course, only one operating system can run at a time.

Virtualization

This is relative new technique that is often used on servers. With virtualization we can run numerous copies of an operating system on a single set of hardware and create this way several virtual machines. Every single virtual machine works like a separate computer. This technology makes a single physical hardware resource to appear like multiple logical resources.

Before starting any operating system installation you have to make sure that all the hardware is certified to work with the new operating system. Also confirm that the hardware resources meet the minimum installation requirements. Moreover, when you perform an upgrade it is a very good practice to perform a virus scan before starting the installation and a complete full backup of all your personal data.

One method that helps you protect your data is this: Create multiple partitions on the hard disk and install a different OS on each partition. Then copy all your data inside an empty partition that does not contain an OS. This way you can upgrade the operating system without the risk of losing any data. Backup and recovery of data files is also easier with this design.

It is also important to decide the type of file system to use. The file system controls how the OS stores and tracks the files. There are several different file systems available. The most well-known are: FAT 32, NTFS, HPFS, ext2 and ext3. Every operating system is designed to use one or more of these file systems. There are advantages and disadvantages on every file system. Careful consideration should be made to the type of file systems supported by the selected OS and the benefits of each.

You can find several programs to modify the partitioning structure and file system of a hard drive after installation, but it is better to avoid them if possible. When modifying either the file system or partition structure on a hard drive, data loss may result. Careful planning can help preserve the integrity of the data.

What Is an Operating System and What Does It Do?

What is a computer operating system and where can I find a list of them?

The question “What is an operating system?” is one I get asked often and I have even been told in the past while trying to sort out a customer’s problem that their operating system is Google when in fact that is the browser they are using not the operating system. (Google does have an open source operating system called Chrome OS I should state) That seems to be the problem people but computers and no one ever tells them the basics of what they are using. Once paid for you are kind of forgotten and left to fend for yourself.

So lets clear it and go through the main operating systems and exactly what they are and do.

What operating systems are there??

There are many different operating systems out there but the ones you will be familiar with by name will probably be:

Microsoft Windows 95

Microsoft windows XP

Microsoft windows ME

Microsoft Windows Vista

Microsoft Windows 7

Microsoft windows 8 (due for release later this year possibly October)

Mac OS 8

Mac OS 9

Mac OS X

Solaris

Ubuntu

Fedora

Open Suse

Free BSD

Symbian

Android

Palm

The list goes on but most of the well-known ones are there.

Ok but simply what is an operating system?

It is a complex set of programs that are designed to manage and control your computer hardware resources and software. This means they can provide services to programs you run on your computer.

OK so maybe that was not that simple. Think of it as the middle man between your physical hardware in your computer and the game or software you want to run.

You open your game or your program and this could be the conversation between your game/program, windows and the hardware.

Program: Hey windows I want to run can you sort me out some resources.

Windows: Sure what do you need?

Program: I could do with a bit of memory, a bit of processing power and some place to store my setting if that’s ok?

Windows: Let me have a chat with hardware and see what we can do. Program Pete: Cheers

*Windows goes to talk to Hardware*

Windows: Hey hardware hows it going down there? Program Pete is at it again “get me this get me that” do you have some free resources?

Hardware: He never leaves me alone does he. Tell him he can use 100% of the processor if he needs it as nobody else is using it at the minute but if anti-virus Annie comes in he will have to share it with her. Tell him he can have half the memory too and as much storage as he wants within reason.

Windows: Cheers hardware I will let him know and allocate it to him

*Windows goes back to Program Pete*

Windows: Right Pete here is what I can do for but is someone else comes along you are going to have to share the resources.

*Uri USB is plugged in and anti-virus Annie wakes up*

URI and Annie together: Can we please have some resources!!

Program Pete: *sigh* now its going to take me a nano second longer to do my task because I have to share with those two

And so the conversation continues….

It may sound silly but if you want to make it really basic this is pretty much what is happening although granted how it happens is very complex. Without the operating system the programs you use would not be able to run as they would not be able to talk to the hardware which is why you will find pretty much every desktop computer, laptop, mobile phone, iPad smart phone has an operating system.

Are there any free operating systems out there?

There are many free ones out there and over the years they have got more and more compatible with software we use on a regular basis. For example the new Raspberry pi comes with a Linux which is free and allows you to do all the basics such as go on the internet create documents.

Below is a list of some of the free Linux ones out there

Fedora

Open Solaris

Ubuntu

Free BSD

Chrome OS

Haiku

There are many more out there this is just a sample of the most popular. You will find arguments all over the internet on operating systems that cost vs free operating systems so I wont go into it here but I will say if you are going to move to free software be sure to do your research. The most important thing to remember is Linux is not windows and is very different so be ready for a learning curve.

Ok so these all go on my computer so what are mobile operating systems?

Mobile operating systems are much the same as an operating system for your desktop or laptop but they are designed for tablets, PDA`s or mobile phones. These tend to combine a number of features such as touch-screen, Bluetooth, GPRS, video cameras, cameras and many other features. The most common mobile operating systems are:

Android – Open source from Google

Blackberry iOS

Apple closed source used on iPhones, iPads.

Symbian – Used by Nokia

Windows phone – Closed source software from Microsoft.

How do I find out what operating system I am using

If using a smart phone or iPad you should be able to determine what you are running from the above list. On a Mac you are most likely to be using OS X snow leopard.

To find out what you are running on a windows based machine find the my computer Icon on your desktop (if it is not on your desktop press your start menu button/windows button and you should find My computer or computer on the right hand side). Use your right mouse button to click on it and select properties. The screen that comes up will tell you the operating system you are running.